e-book BS 8110-2 1985: Structural use of concrete - Part 2: Code of practice for special circumstances

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Lancaster M. Little R.

Narayanan Dr. Somerville Dr. Taylor S. Trew R. Whittle A British Standard does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a contract.


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Users of British Standards are responsible for their correct application. Compliance with a British Standard does not of itself confer immunity from legal obligations. Summary of pages This document comprises a front cover, an inside front cover, pages i to vi, pages 1 to , an inside back cover and a back cover.

This standard has been updated see copyright date and may have had amendments incorporated. This will be indicated in the amendment table on the inside front cover. The recommendations for robustness have been prepared on the assumption that all load-bearing elements, e.


In a structure where concrete elements such as floor slabs are used in conjunction with load-bearing elements of other materials, similar principles are appropriate but, when adequate robustness is provided by other means, the ties recommended by this code may not be required. These normative references are cited at the appropriate points in the text and the publications are listed on page Subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these publications apply to this Part of BS only when incorporated in it by updating or revision.

Editions of these publications current at the time of issue of this standard are listed on the inside back cover, but reference should be made to the latest editions. It may be solid or may have recesses formed on the soffit so that the soffit comprises a series of ribs in two directions waffle or coffered slab 1. Other symbols are defined in the text where they occur.

En nominal earth load. Gk characteristic dead load. Qk characteristic imposed load. Wk characteristic wind load. With an appropriate degree of safety, they should sustain all the loads and deformations of normal construction and use and have adequate durability and resistance to the effects of misuse and fire. Account should be taken of accepted theory, experiment and experience and the need to design for durability.

Calculations alone do not produce safe, serviceable and durable structures. Suitable materials, quality control and good supervision are equally important. The realization of design objectives requires conformity to clearly defined criteria for materials, production, workmanship and also maintenance and use of the structure in service.


The usual approach is to design on the most critical limit state and then to check that the remaining limit states will not be reached. The layout of the structure and the interaction between the structural members should be such as to ensure a robust and stable design. The engineer responsible for the overall stability of the structure should ensure the compatibility of the design and details of parts and components, even where some or all of the design and details of those parts and components are not made by this engineer.

The design strengths of materials and the design loads should be those given in 2. The design should satisfy the requirement that no ULS is reached by rupture of any section, by overturning or by buckling under the worst combination of ultimate loads. Account should be taken of elastic or plastic instability, or sway when appropriate. In particular, situations should be avoided where damage to small areas of a structure or failure of single elements may lead to collapse of major parts of the structure.

Unreasonable susceptibility to the effects of accidents may generally be prevented if the following precautions are taken. Where such elements are identified and the layout cannot be revised to avoid them, the design should take their importance into account. Recommendations for the design of key elements are given in 2. This is generally achieved by the provision of vertical ties in accordance with 3.

Concrete @ your Fingertips

There may, however, be cases where it is inappropriate or impossible to provide effective vertical ties in all or some of the vertical load-bearing elements. In such cases, partial safety factors greater than those given in 2. Account should be taken of such effects as temperature, creep, shrinkage, sway, settlement and cyclic loading as appropriate. Deflections should be compatible with the degree of movement acceptable by other elements including finishes, services, partitions, glazing and cladding; in some cases a degree of minor repair work or fixing adjustment to such elements may be acceptable.

Where specific attention is required to limit deflections to particular values, reference should be made to 3.

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However the accelerations associated with the deflection may be more critical than the deflection itself see 3. It will normally be controlled by adherence to the detailing rules given in 3.

Double RC beam design part 1/3

Where specific attention is required to limit the design crack width to particular values, reference should be made to 3. Isolation of the source of vibration or of part or all of the structure may be needed. Flexible structural elements may require special consideration. NOTE Acceptable vibration limits are described in specialist literature.

The environmental conditions to which the concrete will be exposed should be defined at the design stage. The design should take account of the shape and bulk of the structure, and the need to ensure that surfaces exposed to water are freely draining see 3. Adequate cover to steel has to be provided for protection see 3. Consideration may also be given to the use of protective coatings to either the steel or the concrete, or both, to enhance the durability of vulnerable parts of construction. Concrete should be of the relevant quality; this depends on both its constituent materials and mix proportions.

There is a need to avoid some constituent materials which may cause durability problems and, in other instances, to specify particular types of concrete to meet special durability requirements see 3. Good workmanship, particularly curing, is essential and dimensional tolerances and the levels of control and inspection of construction should be specified. Use should be made of suitable quality assurance schemes where they exist see 2. NOTE For exceptionally severe environments additional precautions may be necessary and specialist literature should be consulted.

Recommendations are given in section 4 of BS Tests should be made on reinforcement and the constituent materials of concrete in accordance with the relevant standards; the production and testing of concrete should conform to BS Where applicable, use should be made of suitable quality assurance schemes. Care should be taken to ensure that: a design and detail are capable of being executed to a suitable standard, with due allowance for dimensional tolerances; b there are clear instructions on inspection standards; c there are clear instructions on permissible deviations; d elements critical to workmanship, structural performance, durability and appearance are identified; and e there is a system to verify that the quality is satisfactory in individual parts of the structure, especially the critical ones.

The characteristic load in each case should be the appropriate load as defined in and calculated in accordance with BS , BS and BS It also takes account of the importance of the limit state being considered. When sustained loading is being considered, for reinforcement the short-term stress-strain curves should be taken to apply; for prestressing tendons, appropriate allowance for relaxation should be made. For concrete, information on creep and shrinkage is given in section 7 of BS It is introduced to take account of unconsidered possible increases in load, inaccurate assessment of load effects, unforeseen stress redistribution, variation in dimensional accuracy and the importance of the limit state being considered.

Table 2. For load combinations 2 and 3, see 3. When applying the factor, no distinction is made between adverse and beneficial loads. Where a detailed investigation of the soil conditions has been undertaken and account has been taken of possible structure-soil interaction in the assessment of the earth pressure, it may be appropriate to derive design ultimate values for earth and water pressure by different procedures.

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  7. In this case, additional consideration should be given to conditions in the structure under serviceability loads. This approach is also recommended for all design situations which involve uncommon features. Further guidance is given in section 2 of BS The loads considered should be those likely to occur before temporary or permanent measures are taken to repair or offset the effect of the damage.