Nutritional assessment of the elderly through anthropometry. Ross Laboratories, Columbus, OH, Body mass index of the elderly derived from height and arm span. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 5: A comparison of triceps, skinfold upper arm circumference measurements taken in standard and supine positions. JPEN ; 5: — Anthropometric measurement of muscle mass: revised equations for calculating bone-free arm muscle area. Am J Clin Nutr ; — An approach to assessing the reliability of anthropometrics in elderly patients. Evans WJ. What is sarcopenia? J Gerontol ; 50A: 5—8. Lean body mass estimation by bioelectrical impedance analysis: a four site cross-validation study.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 7— Correlation of whole body impedance with total body water volume. J Appl Physiol ; — Evaluation of a new magnetic resonance imaging method for quantifying adipose tissue areas. Int J Obes ; — Validation of the in vivo measurement of adipose tissue by magnetic resonance imaging of lean and obese pigs.
Adipose tissue determinations in cadavers -a comparison between cross-sectional planimetry and computerized tomography. Dual-photon absorptiometry: comparison of bone mineral and soft tissue measurements in vivo with established methods. The validity of the Minimum data set for assessing nutritional status in nursing home residents.
Chest ; — Serum albumin, coronary artery disease and death. Am Heart J ; — Assessment of protein-energy malnutrition in older persons: Laboratory evaluation. Laboratory values in fit aging individuals-sexagenarians through centenarians. Clin Chem ; — The role of albumin in human physiology and pathophysiology, part III: albumin and disease states.
JPEN ; — Interleukin-2 induced increase of vascular permeability without decrease of the intravascular albumin pool. Br J Cancer ; 78— Rapidly declining serum albumin values in newly hospitalized patients: prevalence, severity and contributory factors. JPEN ; 6: — Albumin synthesis. N Engl J Med ; — Thyroxine transport proteins of plasma: molecular properties and biosynthesis. Rec Prog Horm Res ; — Serum albumin and prealbumin as predictors of clinical outcomes of hospitalized elderly nursing home residents.
Assessment of nutritional proteins during the parenteral nutrition of cancer patients. Ann Clin Lab Sci ; — Comparison of serum prealbumin ans transferrin for nutritional assessment of TPN patients: a preliminary study. Nutr Supp Sery ; 6: Plasma protein concentrations in nutritional assessment. Proc Nutr Soc ; 4: — The effect of iron deficiency anemia on two nutritional indices of nutritional status, prealbumin and transferrin.
Br J Nutr ; — Structural and functional studies of vitamin A binding proteins. Ann NY Acad Sci ; 79— Hall K, Tally M. The somatomedin-insulin-like growth factors. J Intern Med ; 47— IGF-1, a marker of undernutrition in hemodialysis patients.
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Am J Clin Nutr ; 39— Nutrition and somatomedin. Usefulness of somatomedin-C in nutritional assessment. Am J Med ; — Insulin-like growth factor I as an indicator of protein-energy undernutrition among metabolically stable hospitalized elderly.
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J Am Coll Nutr ; — Deodhar SD. C-reactive protein: the best laboratory indicator available for monitoring disease activity. Cleveland Clin J Med ; — Ingenbleek Y, Carpentier YA. A prognostic inflammatory and nutritional index scoring critically ill patients. Intern J Vit Nutr Res ; 91— Transferyin a poor measure of nutriitonal status. JPEN ; 8: — Venous Disorders Part 3: Dietary Supplements Astragalus Membranaceus Bilberry Fruit Vaccinium Myrtillus Biotin Black Cohosh Cimicifuga Racemosa Boron Bromelain Ananas Comosus Calcium Carotenoids Chamomile Matricaria Recutita Choline Chromium Cr Coenzyme Q10 Ubiquinone Copper Cu Echinacea Feverfew Tanacetum Parthenium Fish Oils Flavonoids Fluoride Folate Garlic Allium Sativum Ginger Zingiberis Officinale Ginkgo Biloba Golden seal Hydrastis Canadensis Green-lipped Mussel Perna Canaliculata Hawthorn Crataegus Laevigata Iodine I Iron Kava Kava Piper Methysticum Licorice Liquiritia Officinalis Magnesium Mg Manganese Mn Meadowsweet Filipendula Ulmaria L Mistletoe Viscum Album Peppermint Mentha X Piperita L Phytochemicals Phytonutrients Phytoestrogens Phytosterols Thus, if in the context of the labeling as a whole its presence implies treatment or prevention of disease for example, by placement on the immediate product label or packaging, inappropriate prominence, or lack of relationship to the product's express claims , the citation is a disease claim.
If the citation is used in labeling, its context determines if it is a disease claim. Yes, you may make general statements about health promotion and disease prevention as long as the statement doesn't imply that your product can diagnose, cure, mitigate, treat, or prevent a disease. In general, if the statement identifies a specific disease or directly references the product or its ingredients, it would imply that the product itself has the effect and would be a disease claim.
An example of an acceptable claim is "a good diet promotes good health and prevents the onset of disease" or "better dietary and exercise patterns can contribute to disease prevention and better health. An example of a disease claim is "Promotes good health and prevents the onset of disease" because the claim infers that the product itself will achieve the intended effect. In general, any picture or vignette or other symbol can be used if it doesn't imply a disease. As with other types of implied claims, it is the context of the total claim that is important.
Some symbols, like the heart symbol, are so widely recognized as symbols for disease treatment and prevention that their use is ordinarily an implied disease claim. Symbols such as EKG tracings are also implied disease claims because they are strongly associated with heart disease and the average consumer cannot distinguish a healthy tracing from an unhealthy one to provide context to remove the implied disease treatment or prevention claim.
It would be an unusual circumstance in which the use of these two symbols would not be implied disease claims. Can the Rx symbol be used without implying that the product is intended to treat disease? In general, the use of the prescription drug symbol "Rx" or the use of the word "prescription" should not be interpreted automatically as a disease claim because not all prescription drugs are intended for disease conditions some are for conditions that would not be considered to be diseases.
However, the use of these terms on dietary supplements may deceive consumers into thinking they are purchasing a prescription drug without a prescription. Thus, the use of these two terms is misleading and will misbrand the product if, in the context of the labeling as a whole, the terms imply that the product is a prescription drug. Criterion 5: Claims that a product belongs to a class of products that is intended to diagnose, mitigate, treat, cure, or prevent a disease see section N, starting on page of the preamble to the rule.
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Certain product class names are so strongly associated with treating and preventing diseases that claiming membership in the product class constitutes a disease claim. Examples of such product classes are analgesics, antibiotics, antidepressants, antimicrobials, antiseptics, antivirals, or vaccines. For example, an appropriate product claim would be "diuretic that relieves temporary water-weight gain. Criterion 6: Claims to be a substitute for a product that is a therapy for a disease see section O, starting on page of the preamble to the rule.
A claim that a product is a substitute for a drug or other therapy for disease, or has fewer side effects than a therapy for disease, is an implied disease claim.
Clinical guide to nutrition & dietary supplements in disease management Jamison Jennifer.pdf
Such claims carry with them the clear implication that the dietary supplement is intended for the same disease treatment or prevention purpose as the therapeutic product. However, if a dietary supplement claims to be a substitute for a drug that is not intended to treat or prevent disease i. Criterion 7: Claims to augment a therapy or drug intended to diagnose, mitigate, treat, cure, or prevent a disease see section P, starting on page of the preamble to the rule.
A claim that a dietary supplement will augment a particular therapy or drug action that is intended to diagnose, mitigate, treat, cure, or prevent disease is a disease claim. A dietary supplement may state that it is useful in providing nutritional support, as long as that claim doesn't imply disease. In general, mentioning the name of a specific therapy, drug, or drug action will associate the claim with the intended use of the therapy, drug, or drug action and be a disease claim. Criterion 8: Has a role in the body's response to a disease or to a vector of disease see section Q, starting on page of the preamble to the rule.
A claim that a dietary supplement fights disease or enhances disease-fighting functions of the body is a disease claim. Under this criterion, context and specificity are important. Claims such as "supports the body's ability to resist infection" and "supports the body's antiviral capabilities" are disease claims because the context of the claim is limited to the disease prevention and treatment capabilities.
taylor.evolt.org/hyjyl-bullas-conocer-chica.php A general claim of this type doesn't specifically focus the intended use of the product on the disease aspect of the system's function. Criterion 9: Claims to treat, prevent, or mitigate adverse events associated with a therapy for a disease see section R, starting on page of the preamble to the rule. A claim that a product will affect adverse events associated with a therapy for disease is a disease claim if the adverse event is itself a disease. For example, "to maintain the intestinal flora in people on antibiotics" is a disease claim because the claim implies that the product will prevent pathogenic bacterial overgrowth a disease condition associated with antibiotic use.
If the adverse event is not a disease, then this type of claim is acceptable.
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Criterion Otherwise suggests an effect on a disease or diseases see section S, starting on page of the preamble to the rule. This provision of the regulation is intended to allow for implied disease claims that may not fit into the other nine criteria. This provision recognizes that a claim may be a disease claim based on its wording or on the context in which the claim appears on the product's label or labeling, even if not covered by the other nine criteria.
This document was issued on January 09, For more recent information, see Dietary Supplements.