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Minute volume MV. This is the total amount of air exhaled per minute. Vital capacity VC. This is the total volume of air that can be exhaled after inhaling as much as you can.

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Functional residual capacity FRC. This is the amount of air left in lungs after exhaling normally. Residual volume. This is the amount of air left in the lungs after exhaling as much as you can. Total lung capacity. This is the total volume of the lungs when filled with as much air as possible.

Forced vital capacity FVC. This is the amount of air exhaled forcefully and quickly after inhaling as much as you can.

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Forced expiratory volume FEV. This is the amount of air expired during the first, second, and third seconds of the FVC test. Forced expiratory flow FEF. This is the average rate of flow during the middle half of the FVC test. Peak expiratory flow rate PEFR. This is the fastest rate that you can force air out of your lungs. Normal values for PFTs vary from person to person. The amount of air inhaled and exhaled in your test results are compared to the average for someone of the same age, height, sex, and race.

Results are also compared to any of your previous test results.

Establishment of the system

If you have abnormal PFT measurements or if your results have changed, you may need other tests. There are many different reasons why pulmonary function tests PFTs may be done. They are sometimes done in healthy people as part of a routine physical. They are also routinely done in certain types of work environments to ensure employee health such as graphite factories and coal mines.

Or you may have PFTs if your healthcare provider needs help to diagnose you with a health problem such as:. Chronic lung conditions, such as asthma, bronchiectasis, emphysema, or chronic bronchitis. Restrictive airway problems from scoliosis, tumors, or inflammation or scarring of the lungs. Sarcoidosis, a disease that causes lumps of inflammatory cells around organs, such as the liver, lungs, and spleen. PFTs may be used to check lung function before surgery or other procedures in patients who have lung or heart problems, who are smokers, or who have other health conditions.

Another use of PFTs is to assess treatment for asthma, emphysema, and other chronic lung problems.

Your healthcare provider may also have other reasons to advise PFTs. Because pulmonary function testing is not an invasive procedure, it is safe and quick for most people. But the person must be able to follow clear, simple directions. Your risks may vary depending on your general health and other factors. Ask your healthcare provider which risks apply most to you.

Talk with him or her about any concerns you have.

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Your healthcare provider will explain the procedure to you. Ask him or her any questions you have. You may be asked to sign a consent form that gives permission to do the procedure. Read the form carefully. Ask questions if anything is not clear. Tell your healthcare provider if you take any medicines.

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  6. This includes prescriptions, over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Stop taking certain medicines before the procedure, if instructed by your healthcare provider. The change in charge transfer resistance is related to lithium concentration in the electrode, and its dependence on voltage follows Eq. This is consistent with our experimental data. In Fig.

    Why might I need pulmonary function tests?

    As expected, both ohmic and charge transfer resistance increased with higher concentration of manganese. The ohmic resistance of LiMn 2 O 4 electrodes increased due to the additional layer formation induced by manganese re-deposition. Charge-transfer resistance also increased remarkably in LiMn 2 O 4 electrodes due to the manganese ions in the electrolyte. These increases are probably caused by the Mn-F and Mn-O compounds, which are generated due to Mn re-deposition on the cathode and are highly resistive.

    Their formation leads to cell polarization and hinders the charge transfer process. The diffusion coefficient has a dependence on voltage, as shown in Fig. The voltage changes during cycling. For simplicity, the average value of the diffusion coefficient was used as input to the simulation. Effective diffusion coefficient of Li in the LiMn 2 O 4 composite electrode as a a function of voltage and b a function of manganese concentration in the electrolyte. The diffusion coefficient of LiMn 2 O 4 electrodes was also measured after adding different concentration of manganese in the electrolyte, as shown in Fig.

    Manganese ions in the electrolyte substantially decrease the diffusion of lithium into the electrode. Dissolved manganese and electrolyte decomposition products generate additional inactive film growth, as reflected by the increase in ohmic resistance and charge transfer resistance. This blocks lithium ion transport to the electrode.

    Li diffusion coefficient with different manganese concentration in the electrolyte, measured with EIS.

    Instant Conversion for Historical Units of Volume

    The change in LiMn 2 O 4 electrode capacity with cycle number with different concentration of manganese is shown in Fig. The discharge capacity decreased continuously with cycles. It was obvious that higher concentrations of manganese caused greater capacity decrease. The cathode electrolyte interface layer is relatively thin compared to the solid electrolyte interphase SEI layer of a graphite electrode, so it has less passivation effect.

    More capacity decrease was observed when there was a higher concentration of dissolved manganese. The low electronic conductivity of the manganese compounds formed on the cathode surface might be one reason for this lack of passivation effect. It is suggested that manganese ions dissolved from the cathode continuously form manganese compounds on the cathode surface. These manganese compounds hinder charge transfer reactions and diffusion of lithium ions, resulting in a continuous capacity fade.

    This result is similar to those of previous studies performed by adding manganese additives to a graphite anode. These studies also showed a continuous decrease in the capacity of the negative electrode.

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    5. These reactions, in addition to loss of the cathode material, contribute to capacity fade. Capacity change with cycle number of LiMn 2 O 4 electrodes with different manganese concentration in the electrolyte. Key input parameters, including open circuit voltage, electronic conductivity, discharge profile and active material dissolution rate, were measured using different experimental techniques. OCV curve and electronic conductivity were used as input to the simulation. Predicted discharge curves from simulations were compared to experiments for model validation.

      The experimentally measured OCV curve was used as input in the simulation. The output voltage profile obtained in the simulation using the measured OCV curve red line matches the experimental result blue circles seamlessly.

      The difference between our experiment and that in the literature arises mainly from the 4. The experimental OCV curve shows a voltage drop near 4.

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      We used our experimentally measured OCV so that we can include all cell impedance information. The predicted discharge profile was similar to the experiment value over cycling. The model has considered the loss of active material, the increase of ohmic and charge transfer resistance, and the decrease of diffusion coefficient due to Mn dissolution.