BPA exposure in fetal female rats leads to mammary gland morphogenesis , increased formation of ovarian tumors , and increased risk of developing mammary gland neoplasia in adult life. BPA also affects male fertility by resulting in lower sperm quality and sex function. The toxicological impact of BPA is better understood and studied in females than in males. Lead is a heavy metal that has been associated not only with mental deficits, but also with male infertility and male reproductive issues. Lead is believed to predominantly affect male reproduction by the disruption of hormones, which reduces the quantity of sperm production in the seminiferous tubules.
It has also been proposed that lead causes poor semen quality by increasing reactive oxygen species [ clarification needed ] due to lipid peroxidation, leading to cellular damage. Other reproductive toxins such as Thalidomide were once prescribed therapeutically. In the s and early s, Thalidomide was widely used in Europe as an anti-nausea medication to alleviate morning sickness in pregnant women. But it was found in the s that Thalidomide altered embryo development and led to limb deformities such as thumb absence, underdevelopment of entire limbs, or phocomelia.
Thalidomide may have caused teratogenic effects in over 10, babies worldwide. Diethylstilbestrol DES , a synthetic estrogen known to be another reproductive toxin, was used from to to prevent spontaneous abortions. DES causes cancer and mutations by producing highly reactive metabolites , also causing DNA adducts to form.
- Risk Assessment Guidelines.
- Listing of IPCS publications and projects on risk assessment methodology;
- The Failure of American and British Propaganda in the Arab Middle East, 1945–1957: Unconquerable Minds;
- Customer Reviews.
- IPCS Publications — European Environment Agency.
Exposure to DES in the womb can cause atypical reproductive tract formation. Specifically, females exposed, in utero , to DES during the first trimester have are more likely to develop clear cell vaginal carcinoma, and males have an increased risk of hypospadias. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
OJEC , L, Environmental Health Criteria. Neurotox —79 Google Scholar.
Evaluating the Risks of Hazardous Chemicals
Ind Med Surg —20 Google Scholar. In: A. European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre Identification and assessment of the effects of chemicals on reproduction and development Reproductive Toxicology Monograph 5 Google Scholar. Geliert RJ Kepone, Mirex, Dieldrin and Aldrin: Estrogenic activity and the induction of persistent vaginal estrus and anovulation in rats following neonatal treatment. Gray LE Jr Neonatal chlordecone exposure alters behavioral sex differentiation in female hamsters.
Neurotoxicol 3: 2 67—80 Google Scholar. Gray LE Jr, Ferrell J, Ostby J Prenatal exposure to nitrofen causes anomolous development of para- and mesonephric duct derivatives in the hamster.
Toxicologist 5: 1 Google Scholar. Gregg NM Congenital cataract following German measles in the mother. Trans Opthalmol Soc Aust — Google Scholar. Harris SJ. Cecil HC, Bitman J Effect of several dietary levels of technical methoxychlor on reproduction in rats. Science — CrossRef Google Scholar. Fetotoxic effects of prenatal exposure in rats and mice.
Toxicol — CrossRef Google Scholar. Khera KS Maternal toxicity — A possible etiological factor in embryo-fetal deaths and fetal malformations of rodentrabbit species.
Looking for other ways to read this?
Tell us if something is incorrect. Add to Cart. Free delivery.
https://saprebornerb.tk Arrives by Thursday, Oct 3. Or get it by Wed, Sep 25 with faster delivery. Pickup not available.
Intended as a tool for use by public health officials research and regulatory scientists and risk managers this publication seeks to provide a scientific framework for the use and interpretation of reproductive toxicity data from human and animal studie. About This Item We aim to show you accurate product information. Manufacturers, suppliers and others provide what you see here, and we have not verified it.
See our disclaimer. Customer Reviews. Write a review. See any care plans, options and policies that may be associated with this product.