Manual The Crusades and the Christian World of the East: Rough Tolerance (The Middle Ages Series)

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However, Henry's daughter hears of the plot and warns her lover, who asks her for 40 scarves to wrap around his arm. When the lion roars, Richard reaches his wrapped arm down the lion's throat and pulls out his heart. Of course, the beast immediately dies, and Richard marches into Henry's court. He eats the heart in front of the emperor and his counselors, who hastily make arrangements to accept the ransom and send this dangerous man back to England.

Le Pas Saladin. Paris: Silvestre, The only copy of the poem hitherto discovered is that in manuscript No. The scene of the story is laid in Palestine. The city of Jerusalem has been delivered into the hands of the enemy through treachery, and Guy, its King, sold to Saladin. But the arrival of the Crusaders has given renewed hope to the Christians.


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It is learned that the Saracens are to pass through a narrow defile, and Philip, with the twelve knights he has gathered around him, attacks and completely overthrows the infidels. The Holy City is re-conquered and Guy restored to his throne. Richard who, as Duke of Normandy, is a vassal of the French crown, does not lead an independent army of his own, but is one of the knights fighting under the banner of Philip.

Medieval Religious, Religions, Religion

Heimskringla: History of the Kings of Norway. Lee M. Austin: University of Texas Press, Theodore M. Andersson and Kari Ellen Gade. Most medieval Icelanders were descended from the Norwegian explorers and immigrants who settled in Iceland in the early tenth century; consequently, the inhabitants of Iceland viewed Norwegian history as their own during the Middle Ages. Tracing a detailed literary map of the route, both chroniclers elaborate on Sigurd's adventures, including his grand reception by Baldwin I of Jerusalem and Alexios Komnenos of Miklagarth Byzantium.

Sigurd's journey is in many ways an extension of the longstanding cooperation between Medieval Scandinavia and Byzantium.

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Sir Hugh of Tabarie. Eugene Mason. London: J. Dent and Sons, While Saracens are typically cast as inferiors in medieval British and French stories, a greater emphasis on their virtues is found in Continental literature. The emergence of Saladin as a literary exemplar of chivalry is the best example of this phenomenon. Saladin's status as a pagan or heretic depending on the text prevents him from achieving the ideological status of a Christian noble; nonetheless, Saladin is an embodiment of courtly chivalric values.


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Undoubtedly, this respectful treatment is due both to his rapport with Richard I during the Third Crusade and to the circulation of stories regarding Saladin's frequent clemency to Christian adversaries. Sir Hugh of Tabarie , a brief romance found in the anonymous Ordre de Chivalrie , plays upon this tradition to great effect. In the poem, Saladin captures Sir Hugh on the battlefield and holds him for ransom. During his imprisonment Hugh is treated with great courtesy, and Saladin asks Hugh either to make him a Christian knight or to show him the process.

The Crusades and the Christian World of the East: Rough Tolerance

At the end of the poem, Saladin and his soldiers courteously pay Hugh's ransom themselves, and he departs freely. Four Kings of England [Richard I, top right]. Albans, c. MS Cotton Claudius D. VI, fol. Jaquiero, Giacomo. Godfrey de Bouillon. From a fresco depicting the Nine Worthies. Castello della Manta, Italy, c. Carole Hillenbrand has written lucidly about this phenomenon in Crusades: The Illustrated History : Despite having lost the Holy Land, Europeans did not forget the crusades; and memories of this momentous interlude in their history remained, even after the Ottoman empire had ceased to pose a real threat to Europe.

Many European perceptions of Muslims and the Muslim world were rooted in the crusading experience and Europe created myths and ideals based on it. Torquato Tasso's epic poem of the First Crusade, Gerusalemme Liberata , was a particularly rich resource for nineteenth-century creative artists. The romantic lure of the crusades became a potent source of inspiration for many novelists, playwrights, poets, musicians, and artists, who portrayed the crusaders as the flower of medieval European chivalry in conflict with an exotic Muslim enemy.

The crusades could also be seen to epitomize, and indeed to intensify, the epic struggle between Christianity and Islam that had begun in the seventh century. Tasso, Torquato. Gervsalemme Liberata. Lione: Alessandro Marsilij, Godfrey of Bulloigne, or, The Recovery of Jerusalem. Edward Fairfax. London: H. Herringman, Jerusalem Delivered: An Heroic Poem.

John Hoole. London: R.

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Dodsley, Emile Signol The Taking of Jerusalem by the Crusaders. In Crusades: The Illustrated History. Our eyes are immediately directed to the figure of Godfrey de Bouillon on horseback, hands raised in thanks to God for the victory. To the right, Peter the Hermit also lifts his eyes to the heavens as women pray before him and kiss his lowered hand. On the other side of Godfrey several crusader soldiers are depicted in fervent prayer, some clearly on the verge of death.

The bodies of slain Muslims are sprawled in the foreground. In a lurid depiction of the ravages of war, and perhaps the romanticized ferocity of the Easterner, the dead Muslim in front of Godfrey's horse clutches the head of a crusader in one hand and his scimitar in the other. In the bottom left, barely noticeable given the darkness on this side of the canvas, a Muslim woman drapes herself in mourning over the body of her husband while their child kisses his lifeless face, indicating the artist's refusal to completely dehumanize the enemy.

The on-going siege and massacre in the city can be seen in the background where, directly above Godfrey, the Muslim flag is pulled down and replaced by the red cross flag. Masterfully rendered, Signol's intricate painting simultaneously depicts the horrors of war and a glorified rendering of the crusaders and their "reclamation" of Jerusalem.

Scott, Sir Walter. The Talisman. Of his four popular novels with crusader backgrounds, The Talisman was especially famous. Scott's depiction of Saladin drew on a literary tradition stretching back to medieval times, idealizing him with a blend of Orientalist fantasy and chivalric legend. Scott contrasts, albeit with Eurocentric condescension, 'the Christian and English monarch' Richard the Lionheart, who showed 'all the cruelty of an Eastern [sovereign],' and Saladin, 'who displayed the deep policy and prudence of a European sovereign.

His images glorify the efforts of the crusaders but also present more sympathetic views of the Muslims, though a eurocentrism simlar to that noted in Scott's Talisman is also present in these renderings. Philadelphia: George Barrie, Despite the loss of life, some clergy saw it as a crusade to defend freedom and to liberate the Holy Places from the control of Germany's Muslim ally, the Ottoman empire.

Re-viewing the eastern Mediterranean

Basil Bourchier, a British clergyman, wrote: "Not only is this a holy war. It is the holiest war that has ever been waged. Berlin is seeking to prove its supremacy over Bethlehem. Eisenhower adopted a similar ideological interpretation of World War II, as seen in this excerpt taken from his memoirs entitled Crusade in Europe : "Daily as it progressed there grew within me the conviction that as never before in a war between many nations the forces that stood for human good and men's rights were this time confronted by a completely evil conspiracy with which no compromise could be tolerated.

Because only by the utter destruction of the Axis was a decent world possible, the war became for me a crusade in the traditional sense of that often misused word.

Committee on Public Information. Auspices of the United States Government, Eisenhower, Dwight D. Crusade in Europe. Films in chronological order : The Crusades. Cecil B. Loretta Young, Henry Wilcoxon. Universal Home Entertainment, Theatrical release , Paramount Pictures.