This dissertation also closely examines another pair of texts that present further deviations from the established patterns of the erotic memoir.
Teleny both as a text and a narrative is disruptive in that it was produced in a round robin style by many hands that, according to bookseller Charles Hirsch, included Oscar Wilde Teleny Wilde notwithstanding, Teleny stands as a key document treating biologically essentialist arguments about sexuality with seriousness, including contemporary medical theory.
Teleny uses this knowledge throughout what is, in actuality, a framed love story between two men, the titular Rene Teleny and his lover Camille Des Grieux, who narrates the story through an interlocutor. Teleny reflects not only an important shift in the way sexualities were linked to identity and biology, but also the way in which queer communities in the late Victorian period were formed in maintained.
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In doing so, Teleny recapitulates normative heterosexual practices—weddings, love, and desire—by presenting the homosexual as a legitimate counterpart. I contend that one of the underlying outcomes of Teleny is as a signal that, in keeping with the ideology of Victorian progress and prefigurations of the Modern era, the fluidity that underscored understandings of sexuality were making way for new medicalized categories and structures. Des Grieux which, before this dissertation, was almost wholly unstudied by scholars, presents another compelling evolution in the erotic memoir genre that has raised perhaps more questions than I am able to answer as the scholar who brought the slim volume to the public for the first time.
This being the case, however, the text has revealed astonishing insights and connections to Teleny and the continuing investigation of Victorian sexuality and the growing trend toward the examined sexual life that, I assert, erotic memoirs played a vital role in documenting. Like Teleny, Des Grieux relies on a mediated account of sexual escapades before turning to the titular character only in the final pages of the text.
None of the expected patterns of an erotic memoir are followed, leading to a narrative that makes for a disjointed and often uncomfortable read. What this dissertation documents, however, in terms of what work Des Grieux does as an erotic memoir, is that the descriptions of sex are never satisfactorily resolved. The characters are constantly sexually frustrated and never fully in control, forcing them to confront the interiority of their sexual desires in a way that no other erotic memoir in this dissertation does. Des Grieux is a textual turning point that centralizes the idea that sex and sexuality are a matter of body as well as mind, although this discovery comes at a significant price for characters in both Des Grieux and Teleny.
The erotic memoirs that came before Des Grieux offered increasingly larger forays into the sexual introspection that this dissertation shows culminated with the end of the nineteenth 14 century. The recognition of more select and diverse markets notwithstanding, booksellers could rely on smaller but significant portions of the market to sell their products. Antiquarian book collecting was not a new pastime in Victorian Britain, but it was an increasingly popular one and what set it apart from earlier periods was the notion of a collection as an individualistic and private endeavour rather than a semi-public one Egginton Maintaining a personal library was a masculine pursuit and, in delineating collections both personal and housed by the state, this dissertation asserts that the acquisition, use, and afterlives of sex book collectors and their collections facilitates modern understandings of censorship and the urge to preserve.
Throughout the course of this dissertation, the notion of a collector culture is implicit when discussing the sex book trade in broader terms and the most important factors in that discussion are differentiating the types of collecting that publishers and booksellers facilitated and, to a great 15 extent, contrived in response to the growing demand for books. The most important collector of sex books during the Victorian period was Henry Spencer Ashbee , who was also known by his pseudonym Pisanus Fraxi.
Ashbee, a textile trader and world traveller, was intimately familiar with book collecting circles, and he assembled the largest collection of Cervantes titles outside of Spain. His alter ego, Pisanus Fraxi, was a renowned sex book collector and bibliographer of sex books. Ashbee was a scholar of sex books who knowingly affixed his name to an underrepresented facet of book collecting in the mainstream. It is my contention that Ashbee had the ability to foresee the importance many of the texts discussed in this dissertation and in the ever-expanding field of pornography studies.
He took it upon himself to preserve as much as possible for a future time when the gatekeepers of history also agreed about the importance of all the materials he left behind. As much as was possible during his lifetime, Ashbee was a public scholar of sex books. This dissertation also presents the first substantial study of a Victorian book collection now housed at Trinity College, Oxford.
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It belonged to the Danson family of Lancashire. The collection represents the culmination of three generations of book collecting that began in the s; and its well-crafted selection of sex books runs to some four hundred and fifty titles. The Danson collection represents the best example currently available of a complete Victorian sex book collection that has not been dispersed at auction or through years of neglect.
The collection is, for all intents and purposes, in its complete state. The most prominent question I seek to answer with this study of collectors is exactly where they fit within the grander scheme of the sex book trade. Fraxi has suggested that there were two distinct types of collector: those who read and those who did not Centuria lii-liii. My treatment of collector culture in Britain during this period relies on the broader sex book culture that underpins this dissertation as a whole.
Where communities were built around expanding understandings of sexuality as is shown regarding erotic memoirs, such communities of collectors were established in a similar fashion. Gatherings of like-minded individuals garnered support for a common cause and in some cases the result could be a book like Teleny. In other cases, however, the result was a members-only club of privileged men actively skirting the law and benefiting from the protection their status afforded them.
Whether collectors, writers, publishers or booksellers, the important notion is that strength in numbers was an integral aspect of all corners of the sex book trade. This is considered with the luxury of the last hundred or so years of progress toward more open scholarship and access to collections of material that would have once meant jail time for possession. This dissertation ends with some conclusions about the who, why, and how of Victorian sex books.
The materials required to complete this dissertation were readily accessible in most cases, and my dissertation shows that these barriers to access have shifted over the centuries; access to sex books evolved over the course of the nineteenth century right alongside phenomenal changes between the pages.
The reasons for these changes are manifold and many have been outlined in this introduction and will be elaborated in the study that follows. Sex book collections are ephemeral and the best thing scholars can do is to use them judiciously to further expand the knowledge of their respective fields. It is my hope that this is what I have done in this dissertation. Tim Dean, in his introduction to Porn Archives, argues that by preserving traces of nonnormative pleasures, porn facilitates not only the tracking but also the reactivation of these pleasures; and it may do so without requiring imaginary identification to experience them.
Contemporaneous and future modern readerships are another important factor in the collective erotic cultural memory of sex books, and these are dealt with in more detail through the genre of the memoir presented in Chapter 3.
The focus in this chapter is on the progenitors and opponents of the Victorian sex book: how their lives are imbued within its pages, and ultimately how a collective erotic cultural memory was integral to the creation of what sex books became over the course of the nineteenth century. None of this means erotic cultural memory is necessarily an accurate recounting of events.
The most obvious Victorian parallel example is Oscar Wilde and his persecution, which is discussed in the last section of this chapter, but the trade in sex books and the people within that trade can also be victims of the same sort of hero worship. Rather than hero-making, my study gives credit to many of those responsible for creating an alternative print culture that supplements the field of Victorian book history and print culture. Using aliases and multiple addresses to stash contraband materials is a time-tested technique of criminals.
The self-referential way sex booksellers obfuscated their identities, leaving intriguing traces of themselves within and without their materials and businesses, made up a large portion of the sex book print culture code necessary for it to flourish. Indeed, this self-referentiality provides a parallel textual history of Victorian literature. Sex booksellers themselves do not tell the entire story, however.
Sex books in the Victorian period constitute a refraction of the broader context of social mores in general and the politics of publishing and print culture in particular. It was not unusual to find blatant references to current events and self-referential allusions to the sex book trade encoded within the pages of sex books.
Also common was deliberate obfuscation between the covers of sex books as a reaction to shifting movements in morality and law.taylor.evolt.org/zuqet-laviana-conocer-mujeres.php
People involved in sex book print culture, either directly as producers, authors, purveyors, and consumers, or those whose scandalous lives were used to inform 7 For the purposes of my study the male pronoun will be used. Lazenby was a master of obfuscation little remembered or researched by scholars, but he provides a link to some of the most important developments not only in sex books of the late Victorian period, but also to sex scandals that exposed London and the world to discourses on aberrant sexualities.
Lazenby ran in well-connected circles of gentlemen producing sex books while at the same time capitalizing on cultural memory by exploiting the details of scandals such as the Boulton and Park cross-dressing affair. In finessing the details of the ensuing trial for his own use, Lazenby introduced Jack Saul into these events—a character who would eventually find his way out of the pages of sex books and into newspapers and the collective public conscience.
Indeed, Saul would later become a touchstone for immorality and indecency in the wake of yet another scandal in London involving alleged sex between men. Lazenby, thrice convicted and imprisoned for his business in the sex book trade, existed not on the margins of Victorian society but in the thick of it, almost invisibly. His imprisonment also made him something of a martyr for the cause of freer sexual expression and his importance to the sex book trade during his most active years cannot be understated. So successful was he at leading multiple lives that his true identity had remained a mystery until my research uncovered and pieced together the facts of his life.
Lazenby, whose mainstay had been flagellation literature, offered a smattering of other genres that incorporated new ideas about sexual categories—homosexual, lesbian, and transgender especially, though the modern vocabulary for these lay far in the future—while Lazenby the man led, what can only be surmised, a relatively banal existence apart from his brushes with the law.
Looking back on his lives, trials, and output, however, reveals a calculating yet evanescent character whose influence reverberated through sex book print culture and the law until at least the end of the nineteenth century. Memory is built upon things that can be touched or enacted—experiences that can be recorded, disseminated, and examined. Lazenby, by virtue of soliciting the experiences of a number of writers that helped 23 create the works he sold, traded in creating collectively composed artifacts comprised of erotic cultural memory.
Most active in the s and s, William Lazenby was known by no fewer than five pseudonyms. Rather, what Lazenby did during his most productive period was unlike anything other men in his business had done with quite the level of success.
While Lazenby opportunistically exploited cultural memory by pilfering and adding an erotic flair to scandalous persons and places, the opposite also happened when his own creations began to appear outside the pages of his sex books. Long after he had ceased producing volumes of his own, moreover, Lazenby himself remained a spectral figure in the eyes of the law for his associations with other known sex book publishers.
As interest in and accessibility to reading materials grew, so did sex books and Lazenby—not unlike the astute Charles Mudie—obviously had a keen eye for methods of expanding his business. Along with these Dugdale reprints, Lazenby issued a number of texts that have been in part or wholly attributed to him as author and publisher. Curiosities of Flagellation , a text that would have appealed to a readymade readership with the burgeoning flagellant market is attributed to Lazenby by the contemporary erotic bibliographer with a penchant for flagellation literature, Henry Spencer Ashbee.
There is little reason to doubt Fraxi; his is the standard for erotic bibliography and it is clear throughout the three volumes that he was personally acquainted with many in the sex book trade. Additionally, writing under a pseudonym offered Ashbee a certain freedom of expression otherwise unavailable to his respectable public persona as a textile merchant and book collector of good repute. While Lazenby was writing, publishing, and selling sex books in the s, his most prolific period was between — During these seven years Lazenby published, in an imitation of the Victorian serial, his most well known periodical The Pearl—a compendium of reprints and original compositions, some penned by Lazenby himself.
The Cremorne is particularly redolent with erotic cultural memory because of its association with the Cremorne Pleasure Gardens, a notorious London locale known for its open attitudes to sexuality and prostitution. While the gardens were not obscene in an ostentatious manner, and the business of pleasure was conducted furtively, they nonetheless were a distinct threat 27 to the delicate social order.