The drive actually continued past Lewiston to the Boise Basin as they wanted better prices for the cattle than what was offered in Lewiston. Labels: history. Highway from Grand Coulee to Bridgeport takes one up onto the northeast part of the Watterville Plateau and glacier scoured landscapes.
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This valley has some mini badlands. Lake terrace is the level line bench on the valley slope. Monday, November 14, Missoula Forest Fire Wild land fire east of Missoula, Montana.
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Clark and his dog with fire on the slope above the Clark Fork. Labels: climate. Location: Missoula, United States. Sunshine and gravel bars on the Sauk River.
Labels: climate , geology. I recently took a trip up along the east bank of the Columbia River across from the Hanford area. The Columbia River Road ends at a landslide.
List of rapids of the Columbia River
The road formerly continued north along the river before it was closed I believe in the s. Irrigation on the plateau above caused groundwater to become perched on the silts of the Ringold Formation bluffs above the river triggering a series of landslides closing the riverside road.
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Landslide scarps on the Ringold bluffs. Orchards and other irrigated crop land is located above. Note the green wetland on the mid slope. The slopes were already steep and potentially unstable with some old landslides before the irrigation began. Fractured blocks on landslide surface with Columbia River below. Besides acting as a perching,. One of several headwall scarps exposing silts and clays. Finely layered silts in block on the slide surface.
The age of the formation is estimated to range from 8. The deposits are are generally not very lithified. The presence of the Ringold Formation hints that the Pasco Basin in south central Washington has been a subsiding basin since at least the end of the Miocene and given the thickness of the underlying basalts in the basin probably for millions of years before that. It is easy to imagine a scenario whereby the Columbia would have been blocked by lava flows that would have backed the river up into a lake covering much of the Pasco Basin, but there are alternative mechanisms that could have changed the gradient as well.
The end of the road can be seen in the USGS image above as well as section of the old road to the north. Active slides below irrigated land to the north. Homes on bench area above river approximately half mile north of active slide area. Labels: geology , landslides. Hay rolls on highway right-of-way, North Dakota. I spent some time this past summer on the northern Great Plains of the United States. A common feature I observed was cut hay rolls along the right-of-way of highways in Nebraska, the Dakotas and Montana. Not something one sees in Washington State. In part this is because most hay production in eastern Washington depends on irrigation and in western Washington farm land is fairly limited compared to the plains and even then summers are often too dry for much hay production.
Given the need to cut back the jungle in western Washington, perhaps Christmas tree farms on the right-of-ways would work. Tuesday, November 8, Theodore Roosevelt and Landslides. For geologists badlands are great fun. Lots of well exposed formations and raw geomorphic processes to behold. My early geology years were all about hard rocks, mines and metamorphic processes. Lots of great landslides to check out.
Bartholomeu Diaz reached the Cape of Good Hope in The Portuguese and the English surmised that America was a barrier to a westward approach to India. Portugal sent Corterreal, and he failed to return. Ferdinand Magellan of Portugal sailed around the world The Spaniards and English Major tributaries of the Columbia. In the Spaniards Cabrillo and Ferrelo saw the coast of Oregon. Juan de Fuca allegedly sailed the Strait of Juan de Fuca in Aquilar of Spain tried to enter the Columbia in , and named it Rio de Aquilar.
Soon navigators of several nations joined the search. History interfered as European kingdoms plunged into a series of wars that lasted more than years, beginning with the Thirty Years' War In the British Government offered 20, pounds for discovery of the Northwest Passage. The first Russian shipload of fur reached China in Other Spanish navigators notably Malaspina in touched the coast as far north as Mount St.
Elias on the Alaska-Canada border. His voyage triggered the dramatic upsurge in fur trade and exploration of the s. Flying a Portuguese flag, the Englishman Meares lay off the Columbia on July 5, , but wisely feared the break- ers at the bar. He erroneously concluded no river existed there.
The same year, John Kendrick and Robert Gray sailed to Nootka to trade for furs to exchange for spices and silks in China to sell back in Boston, a 3-year round-the- world trip. On their next trip in , with Gray commanding the Columbia and Kendrick the Lady Wash- ington, they reached and tried for 9 days to enter the Columbia River. Continuing northward they met Captain Vancouver, who had sighted the Columbia River on April 27, , but, based on the earlier report by Meares, con- cluded it was not a river.
After this meeting. Gray returned south. On a favorable sea May 11, he sailed the Co- lumbia over the bar and some 35 miles up the broad chan- nel of the river and took on furs. He named the river Columbia after his ship and on May 20, put to sea northward. His exploration in time became part of the basis for the United States claim to the entire Pacific Northwest.
Again Gray met Captain Vancouver and reported his discovery. He explored the river as far as Washougal until November 10, , and then rejoined Captain Vancouver at Monterey, California. Vancouver thereupon claimed the Columbia River for Great Britain.
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However, the British claim on the area came mainly by land and not by sea. Lewis and Clark. As early as Thomas Jefferson had advocated sending an exploration party to the Pacific Ocean. As President in , while negotiations continued on the Louisiana Pur- chase, Jefferson obtained approval of Congress for sending an expedition, and selected his personal secretary Meriwether Lewis, then 29, as leader.
Lewis in turn, with the President's approval, selected his friend and fellow Virginian, William Clark as coequal leader. Clark had had more experience with Indians and wilderness conditions. He was four years older and had commanded the rifle company with which Lewis had served. The expedition left the Wood River in Illinois on May 14, , and returned from the 8, mile journey September 23, They identified 39 Indian tribes totaling 80, people, and observed their use of the Columbia River for naviga- tion, trade, and as a source offish.
Particularly they noted the rapids and falls which hindered navigation. They made laborious portages around Celilo Falls and the Cascades. Returning April 12, the party lost to the churn- ing waters its largest dugout canoe and towrope. The Lewis and Clark Expedition showed the way. The mountain men and trappers followed and located the Ore- gon Trail to The Dalles, but this still required going through the Columbia River Gorge. Thousands of settlers came to claim the Pacific Northwest for the United States.
The treaty made the Pacific Northwest part of the United States.
More importantly Lewis and Clark paved the way for set- tlement of Oregon. Oregon was first used as a name to identify the Colum- bia River by the American traveler Jonathan Carver in his book Travels in Interior Parts of America, published in The name Oregon was popularized by the American poet William Cullen Bryant in in his poem "Thanatopsis:" "Or lose thyself in the continuous woods Where rolls the Oregon, and hears no sound Save its own dashings.
The Tferritory of Washingon was established in The revised Oregon Tbrritory became the State of Oregon in as the 33rd state, Montana and Washington be- came the 41st and 42nd states in and Idaho the 43rd in Meanwhile, the fur trade had declined. Pioneers had surged over the Oregon Trail in the s to settle the Pacific Northwest.